What’s in a Jewish or Greek-Roman name? This topic is intimately related to the issue on the falsehood of the name Jesus Christ. This is critically important, as many are being led to worship the name Jesus Christ. Preachers would even shout, declaring him worthy of praise, worship and obedience.
Is there really power in his name? Or, basing on truth, not on doctrinal coercion or delusion, myth, fiction or imagination, is it logical, at all, to praise and worship a created, evolving and fictitious name?
Conflicts and controversies may arise from the issue, but truth seekers and fiction lovers are just invited to freely and academically test the validity or spirit of argument, just to see for themselves the truth, for, perhaps, many will find the counter-arguments, not acceptable, but in the end, it’s not pride and deception, but only truth and being saved that have to matter.
Today, many people from different races, religious backgrounds and political affiliations believe in a ‘Jesus Christ’ entity as God. However, to consider it not merely a myth, fiction or fallacy, the proposition, belief or opinion must have factual and/or logical bases, not merely based on false faith or dubious or questionable bible. Also, many are believing that he is ‘the way, the truth and the life‘. And, as believed, nobody could come to the Father, except through him. In short, allegedly, he is the only way to the Father. Also, he is said to be the light of the world, despite the fact that his name had put in total darkness or hidden the true Hebrew name of the messiah.
Is he really the way to the heavenly Father or to another father, either a Greek or English father?
Let us divide the discussion into four (4) articles, to wit; 1) What’s in a Jewish or Greek-Roman name, which has relevance to the identity of the true and false messiah 2) Yahushua: The Only Way to the Father, 3) Where did the names ‘Jesus’ and ‘Christ’ originate and 4) Jesus Christ: Another Way to Another Father, before finally concluding the discussion.
Related to the issue is 2 Thessalonians 2:10-11, which prophetically say about strong delusions among non-believers of truth to believe in a lie. The verses state:
“10 and all the ways that wickedness deceives those who are perishing. They perish because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. 11 For this reason God sends them a powerful delusion so that they will believe the lie.” (NIV)
Above verse is intimately connected to Romans 1:25, which states:
“25 They exchanged the truth about God for a lie, and worshiped and served created things rather than the Creator—who is forever praised. Amen.(NIV)“.
and Jeremiah 23:25-27, which state:
“25 I have heard what the prophets said, that prophesy lies in my name, saying, I have dreamed, I have dreamed. 26 How long shall this be in the heart of the prophets that prophesy lies? yea, they are prophets of the deceit of their own heart; 27 Which think to cause my people to forget my name by their dreams which they tell every man to his neighbour, as their fathers have forgotten my name for Baal. (KJV).
Finally, intimately related to the above verses, where time had already come for exposing the son of perdition, who is no other than Jesus Christ, is 2 Thessalonians 2:3-4, which state as follows:
‘3 Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition;
4 Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God.”(KJV)
What’s in a Jewish or Greek-Roman name?
As discussed in Wikipedia, Jewish names passed through some form of evolution due to gentile or pagan influence, specifically during the Talmudic period and during their exile. More specifically, it states, as follows:
“Names of Hebrew origin
Many of these names are thought to have been adapted from Hebrew phrases and expressions, bestowing special meaning or the unique circumstances of birth to the one who receives that name.
Theophoric names are those which include a form of a divine name, such by adding the suffix אל -el, meaning “God,” forming names such as מיכאל Michael (“who is like God?”) and גבריאל Gabriel (“man of God”). Another common form of theophory is the use of the Tetragrammaton as the basis for a suffix; the most common abbreviations used by Jews are יה -yāh/-iyyāh and יהו -yāhû/-iyyāhû/-ayhû, forming names such as ישׁעיהו Yəšaʻªyāhû (Isaiah), צדקיהו Ṣiḏqiyyāhû (Zedekiah) and שׂריה Śərāyāh (Seraiah). Most Christian usage is of the shorter suffix preferred in translations of the Bible to European languages: Greek -ιας -ias and English -iah, producing names such as Τωβιας Tōbias (Tobias, Toby) instead of Tobiyyahu and Ιερεμίας Ieremias (Jeremiah, Jeremy) instead of Yirmeyahu.
In addition to devotion to Elohim and YHWH, names could also be sentences of praise in their own right. The name טוביהו Ṭôḇiyyāhû means “Good of/is the LORD.”
Names of Aramaic origin
Judæo-Aramaic was the vernacular language at the time of Jesus, and was also the language used to write parts of the Book of Daniel, the Book of Ezra, and the entire Jewish Babylonian Talmud. Aramaic remained the lingua franca of the Middle East until the time of Islam.
Due to the Hellenisation of the Eastern Mediterranean and the movement of Jews around the area, many Hebrew names were adapted to Greek, reinforced by the translation of the Tanakh in the Septuagint with many Hellenized names.
Such Hebræo-Greek names include Ἰησοῦς Iēsous (originally from ישׁוע Yēšûªʻ), Νῶε Nōē (originally from נח Nōªḥ), Ἰσαΐας Isaias (originally from ישׁעיהו Yəšaʻªyāhû), Ἰσραήλ Israēl (originally from ישראל Yiśrā’ēl).
Also, some Jews of the time had Greek Gentile names themselves, such as the Christian Luke (Greek Λουκᾶς Loukas). Though used by some Jews at the time, these names are generally not associated with Jews today, and are considered characteristically Greek and largely confined to use by Christians. Hebrew forms of the names exist, but they are extremely rare.
Also, some Jews during Roman times also had Latin names for themselves, such as the Christian apostle Mark (Latin Marcus). As was the case with contemporary Jewish names of Greek origin, most of these Latin names are generally not associated with Jews today, and today retain a Roman and Christian character.
With the rise of Islam and the establishment of an Arab Caliphate, the Arabic language became the lingua franca of the Middle East and some parts of Berber North Africa. Islamic scripture such as the Qurʼan, however, contains many names of Hebrew origin (often via Aramaic), and there were Jewish and Christian minorities living under Arab Islamic rule. As such, many Hebrew names had been adapted to Arabic, and could be found in the Arab world. Jews and Christians generally used the Arabic adaptions of these names, just as in the present English-speaking Jews (and sometimes Muslims) often use Anglicized versions (Joshua rather than Yəhôšúªʼ, for instance.)
Such Hebræo-Arabic names include:
- ʼAyyūb أيّوب (from Hebrew איוב ʼIyyôḇ) (Job)
- Yūsuf يوسف (from Hebrew יוסף Yôsēp̄) (Joseph)
- Dāʼūd داۇد (from Hebrew דוד Dāwiḏ) (David)
- ʼIsmāʻīl اسماعيل (from Hebrew ישׁמעאל Yišmāʻêl) (Ishmael)
- ʼIsḥāq إسحاق (from Hebrew יצחק Yiṣḥāq) (Isaac)
- Yaʻqūb يعقوب (from Hebrew יעקב Yaʻªqōḇ) (Jacob)
- ʼĀdam آدم (from Hebrew אדם ʼĀḏām) (Adam)
- Ḥawwāʼ حواء (from Hebrew חוה Ḥawwāh) (Eve)
The influence of Aramaic is observable in several names, notably ʼIsḥāq (Isaac), where the Syriac form is simply Îsḥāq, contrasting with more Hebraic forms such as Yaʻqūb (Jacob).
Some of these Arabic names preserve original Hebrew pronunciations that were later changed by regular sound shifts; thus Maryam corresponds to the form recorded by classical authors, whereas the second i in Miriam is the result of a later sound change (also observable in words such as migdal, recorded in the New Testament as Magdalene and in Palestinian Arabic as Majdala) which turned a in unstressed closed syllables into i.
Typically, Hebrew אל -ʼēl was adapted as ـايل -īl, and Hebrew יה -yāh as ـيا -yāʼ.”
It is observed that Hellenization had greatly influenced Jewish names. This is described in Wikipedia, where it mentions the influence of Alexander the Great in Jewish names during Talmudic period, despite objections among Jews, as follows:
Among the names in the Talmud there is a considerable proportion of Greek ones. A large number also are Aramaic, ending in -a or -ai: Abba, Huna, and Papa are instances of the former. Even Bible names were transformed in this direction——Ḥanina instead of Hananiah, Abuya instead of Abijah; while others were shortened, as Lazar (for Eleazar). Many Biblical names received renewed popularity owing to the distinction of their bearers, as those of Gamaliel, Hillel, and Ulla. The tendency toward double names existed here, as Sarah Miriam, Johanan Joseph, and Mahaliel Judah. Converts to Judaism, like Aquila, Monabaz, and Helena, retained their pagan names (as was the custom also in the early Christian Church). There was some objection to foreign names among the Jews of this period,yet legend declares that the high priest Simon promised Alexander the Great that all the children of priestly families born in the year following his visit to Jerusalem would be named Alexander, after him.
Also, regarding the use of surnames and ‘sacred names’, Wikipedia (Sephardic and Mizrahi Jewry section) states:
“Surnames were not unknown among the Jews of the Middle Ages, and as Jews began to mingle more with their fellow citizens, the practice of using or adopting civic surnames in addition to the “sacred” name, used only in religious connections, grew commensurately. x x x “
Based on the above historical accounts, Jewish names are basically linked to Hebrew phrases and expressions, with special meaning or uniqueness based on the circumstances of birth of the one being named. Many Israelites, for example, prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, etc, adopted theophoric names, which reflect the divine name, bearing the suffix, either, -el, -yah/-iyyah, -yahu/-iyyahu/-ayhu, or prefix Ya as in Yaʻªqōḇ) (Jacob) or Ya in Yasūʻ in arabic speaking Christians, consistent to their divine tasks. Also, as traced in the middle ages, Jews continue to use sacred names, and in fact, even recently, the divine name suffix still exists in Prime Minister of Israel, Benjamin Nethanyahu. It is also found in Revelation 19, where Hallelu-YAH or ‘Praise Yah’, is written four times.
In short, even due to gentile or paganic influences during the time of Alexander the Great or by Arabic and Roman powers, some Jewish names continued to bear the divine name suffix or prefix, thereby putting the Septuagint, which was allegedly written during the time of Egyptian King Ptolemy II Philadelphus, and the name Ἰησοῦς Iēsous (originally from ישׁוע Yēšûªʻ, now Jesus) indicated therein, in obvious controversy. (Just for reference, the said controversy is discussed in the article entitled, “Jesus Christ: Another Way to Another Father”).
On the other hand, Greek-Romans likewise adopted theophoric names, using distinct suffixes to acknowledge and honor the name of their own pagan gods, which were also worshipped by Romans. Wikipedia states:
“A theophoric name (from Greek: θεόφορος, theophoros, literally “bearing or carrying a god”) embeds the name of a god, both invoking and displaying the protection of that deity. For example, names embedding Apollo, such as Apollonios or Apollodorus, existed in Greek antiquity.
Theophoric personal names, containing the name of a god in whose care the individual is entrusted (or a generic word for god), were also exceedingly common in the ancient Near East and Mesopotamia. Some names of theophoric origin remain common today, such as Theodore (theo-, “god”; -dore, origin of word compound in Greek: doron, “gift”; hence “God’s gift”; in Greek: Theodoros) or less recognisably as Jonathan (from Hebrew Yonatan, meaning “Yahweh has given”).”
It also enumerated classical Greek-Roman theophoric names, as follows:
- Demetrius and its derivatives mean “follower of Demeter.”
- Dennis, in Latin Dionysius, and its relatives mean “of Dionysus.”
- Martin and its relatives mean “of Mars.”
- Zeno and Diodoros or Diodorus from Zeus (genitive of Zeus is ‘dios’); Poseidonios from Poseidon; Athenodoros/Athenodora from Athena and Minervina from Minerva; Apollodoros/Apollodora and Apollonios from Apollon; Artemisia and Artemidoros/Artemidora from Artemis; Aphrodesia from Aphrodite; Hephaistion from Hephaistos; Aria from Ares; Hermione from Hermes; Heliodoros/a from Helios; Fortunatus from Fortuna; Serapion from Serapis and Isidoros or Isidora from Isis.
- Certain names of classical gods are sometimes given as personal names. The most common is Diana and its variants, such as Diane; others include Minerva, Aphrodite, Venus, Isis, or Juno. The first pope to take a regnal name, Pope John II, had the given name Mercurius and changed his name as he considered it inappropriate for the Pope to have the name of a pagan deity.
If you notice from the above, only four (4) Greek-Roman pagan god names are ending in suffix -us, in addition to Jesus. They are as follows, 1) Dionysus, 2) Zeus and 3) Venus and Mercurius. As discussed in Wikipedia, Mercury (/ˈmɜːrkjʊri/; Latin: Mercurius [mɛrˈkʊ.ri.ʊs] listen (help·info)) is a major Roman god, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon. He is the patron god of financial gain, commerce, eloquence (and thus poetry), messages/communication (including divination), travelers, boundaries, luck, trickery and thieves; he is also the guide of souls to the underworld. He was considered the son of Maia, who was a daughter of the titan Atlas, and Jupiter in Roman mythology.
Venus (/ˈviːnəs/, Classical Latin: /ˈwɛnʊs/) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory. In Roman mythology, she was the mother of the Roman people through her son, Aeneas, who survived the fall of Troy and fled to Italy. Julius Caesar claimed her as his ancestor. Venus was central to many religious festivals, and was revered in Roman religion under numerous cult titles.
Zeus (/zjuːs/; Greek: Ζεύς Zeús [zdeǔ̯s]) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who ruled as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter. His mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of Indo-European deities such as Indra, Jupiter, Perun, Thor, and Odin.
Dionysus (/daɪ.əˈnaɪsəs/; Greek: Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus was the main religious focus for its unrestrained consumption. His worship became firmly established in the seventh century BC. He may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks; traces of Dionysian-type cult have also been found in ancient Minoan Crete. x x x In Greek mythology, he is presented as a son of Zeus and the mortal Semele, thus semi-divine or heroic: and as son of Zeus and Persephone or Demeter, thus both fully divine, part-chthonic and possibly identical with Iacchus of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace or Phrygia such as Sabazios or Zalmoxis.
By the time the New Testament was written, the Septuagint had already transliterated ישוע Yeshua` into Koine Greek as closely as possible in the 3rd-century BCE, the result being Ἰησοῦς Iēsous.Since Greek had no equivalent to the semitic letter ש shin [ʃ], it was replaced with a σ sigma [s], and a masculine singular ending [-s] was added in the nominative case, in order to allow the name to be inflected for case (nominative, accusative, etc.) in the grammar of the Greek language. The diphthongal [a] vowel of Masoretic Yehoshua` or Yeshua` would not have been present in Hebrew/Aramaic pronunciation during this period, and some scholars believe some dialects dropped the pharyngeal sound of the final letter ע `ayin[ʕ], which in any case had no counterpart in ancient Greek. The Greek writings of Philo of Alexandria and Josephus frequently mention this name. It also occurs in the Greek New Testament at Acts 7:45 and Hebrews 4:8, referring to Joshua son of Nun.
What is very clear, however, from the alleged origin of the name Jesus (Ἰησοῦς Iēsous), which is ישוע Yeshua, is the absence of the Israelites’ God divine name suffix , as traditionally observed in the prophets’ name or prefix Ya as in Yaʻªqōḇ) (Jacob) or in Yasū. Also, based on the above justification, Ἰησοῦς Iēsous was only created by writers to allegedly satisfy the grammar of the Greek language but never to satisfy the truth regarding the messiah’s name.
Note however that nobody can ever justify why Jesus Christ name still exist in the English language today, as Yeshua, which is already an English transliteration, is proven to be accommodated in the language, as proper transliteration of a Hebrew or Aramaic masculine name. In short, the alibi in the Greek language pertaining to masculine singular ending [-s] is no longer present in English and other languages. Hence, it is plain falsehood to adopt the Jesus Christ name in the said languages, as it had been proven to be false by the admitted origin Yeshua. This would only confirm therefore that people who are worshiping the Jesus Christ name were just deceived to worship a created, evolving and fictitious or false name.
On the other hand, comparatively, Jewish and Greek-Romans, who both adopted theophoric names in their tradition, have distinct and separate gods, who are identified through their respective names. While Greek-Romans have numerous pagan gods, Jewish or Israelites have only one God. Therefore, due to the absence of Israelite’s God divine name suffix or prefix Ya in the name ישוע Yeshua or Ἰησοῦς (Iēsous), now Jesus, and the inherent propensity of the writers to honor the Greek pagan gods, the name Jesus can only be validly connected to the name Zeus and/or Dionysus.
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- Jesus is a False Christ
- ‘Jesus is Christ’ doctrine is a big traditional lie
- Christians are revering fictitious Jesus as God
- Christianity in general is a satanic cult
- ‘J’ is the biblical letter that kills
- Second part of ‘J’ is the biblical letter that kills
- Third part of ‘J’ is the biblical letter that kills
- Concluding part of ‘J’ is the biblical letter that kills
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- “Excuse me, my name was pronounced Yahushua, not J-Zeus”
- Trinity of lies & deceptions in Jesus Christ
- Philo of Alexandria and other ancient bible writers: Source of deception?
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- ‘Jesus Christ’ delusion in Catholics and Christians
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- How Jesus Christ lie to Catholics, Christians and to the world?
- How severe is Filipino delusion of ‘Christmas’?